The 32-year-old Germany striker was replaced by summer signing Nany Dimata in the 40th minute of the Lower Saxony derby at the Volkswagen Arena, after his leg gave way as he collected a pass from Wolfsburg midfielder Josuha Guilavogui.
Wolfsburg have not put a timescale on the injury, but Gomez will undergo further examination on Monday.
"The injury is really annoying but I want to and will do all I can go get back as quickly as possible," Gomez said following the diagnosis. "However, I know these injuries take time and patience."
Gomez, who was Wolfsburg's top scorer last season with 16 Bundesliga goals and sporting director Olaf Rebbe recognises the magnitude of his absence.
"Not having Mario in the team is a massive blow. We don't know yet how long we'll be without him but the team is strong enough to compensate and Mario will do all he can to get back fit as quickly as possible."
Wolfsburg are next in action away to Stuttgart on 16 September.
Watch: Gomez's 2016/17 campaign in 60 seconds