James Rodriguez has long since mastered the language of football - or is that soccer? – but how is his German coming along? Keep up with the Bayern Munich and Colombia superstar with our handy A-Z below…0-9, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X/Y/Z
Watch: 442oon's take on the Bundesliga dictionary!
50+1 rule - League Association rules stipulate that members of all German professional clubs must retain at least a 50 per cent plus one share, thus preventing any single entity taking control.
Abseits - offside
Abstaubertor - poacher's goal
Abstieg - relegation
Abstiegszone - relegation zone
Abwehr - defence
Abwehrreihe - back line
Achter - a player who plays the "No. 8" role in midfield, a box-to-box player, adept in both attack and defence
Die Adler - the Eagles: a reference to the majestic bird of prey that adorns the Eintracht Frankfurt shirts
Die Alte Dame - nickname for Hertha Berlin, literally 'the Old Lady'
Angriff - attack
Angstgegner - bogey team
Anpfiff/Anstoß - kick-off
Aufstieg - promotion
Ausputzer - sweeper
Außenstürmer - winger
Außenverteidiger - full-back
Auswärts - away from home
Auto City club - nickname sometimes given to Wolfsburg owing to the city's famous car manufacturer and main sponsor, Volkswagen.
Baden-Württemberg derby - A derby game contested by clubs from the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg, such as Freiburg, Hoffenheim or Karlsruher (Baden) and VfB Stuttgart or Aalen (Württemberg)
Ballbesitz - possession
Bananenflanke - curler, in-/ outswinger (cross); banana ball
Bank - substitutes' bench
Beinschuss - nutmeg
Betzenberg/Betze - popular name for Kaiserslautern's Fritz-Walter-Stadion, so called due to its location on the Betzenberg Hill
Borussia – the Latin name for Prussia. Dortmund and Mönchengladbach share the name, with both of them located in what was once the Prussian Empire, which spanned northern Germany at its height.
Die Breisgauer - belonging to the Breisgau region, encompassing part of the Black Forest... SC Freiburg
Mit breiter Brust - literally 'with a big chest', meaning: with confidence
Bruchweg Boys - collective nickname given to then-Mainz players Lewis Holtby, Andre Schürrle and Adam Sazali, who celebrated as if they were a rock band when they scored during the 2010/11 season. Bruchweg was the name of Mainz's former stadium.
Bundestrainer - the title given to the coach of the Germany national team, currently Joachim Löw
BVB - abbreviation commonly used to refer to Borussia Dortmund. The initials stand for Ballspiel-Verein Borussia, or Borussia ball-sports club
Cannstatter Kurve - the home fans' main stand at Stuttgart's Mercedes-Benz Arena
Der Club - a succinct alternative for 1. FC Nürnberg (1st Football Club Nuremberg)
Coachingzone - technical area
Watch: The Bundesliga's new wave of coaches
Dahoam - often used in the phrase 'Finale Dahoam', literally 'home final', which refers to Bayern Munich's ill-fated 2012 UEFA Champions League final on home turf against Chelsea
Dauerkarte - season ticket
Dinos - nickname for Hamburg - the 'dinosaurs' - referring to the club's status as the only side in Germany to have played exclusively in the Bundesliga since its inception in 1963
Doppelpack - brace
Doppelpass - one-two
Dreierpack - hat-trick
Dribbeln - dribble
Dritte Liga - Germany's third division
Drücken Sie die Daumen! - keep your fingers crossed!
Ecke/Eckball - corner kick
Eckfahne - corner flag
Ehrentreffer - literally an 'honour goal', but what we'd know in English as a consolation goal
Eigentor - own goal
Eintracht - Frankfurt and Braunschweig’s prefix means harmony. Whether the teams enjoy as much on the pitch is another matter
Einwurf - throw-in
Elfmeter - penalty
Elfmeterpunkt - penalty spot
Endspiel - final
Endstand - final score
Englische Woche - literally meaning 'English week', referring to a busy period of matches where teams have a midweek fixture, as is the norm in English football
Eröffnungsspiel - the inaugural match of the new Bundesliga season, contested between the reigning champions and one of the other 17 teams and, since the 2002/03 season, played on a Friday evening
Ersatzspieler - substitute
Erzrivale - arch rivals, for example Dortmund and Bayern
Fahrstuhlmannschaft - literally an 'elevator side' due to a tendency to move up and down between leagues: a 'yo-yo team'
Fallrückzieher - bicycle kick, overhead kick
FC – The most common prefix for German football teams, including FC Bayern Munich, FC Schalke 04, 1. FC Cologne and FC Augsburg. It stands for “Fußballclub” (literally: football club). Also a common nickname for Cologne, pronounced “Effzeh”
Flanke - cross
Die Flingeraner - a tribute to Fortuna Düsseldorf's humble beginnings in the working-class district of Flingern
Die Fohlen - the Foals: a name given to Gladbach's enterprising young bucks of the 1970s, now the team's recognised nickname
Freistoß - free kick
Freundschaftsspiel - friendly game
FSV – The prefix for Mainz which stands for “Fußball- und Sportverein” (literally: football and sport club)
Die Fuggerstädter - a quirky option for Augsburg: the small city in Bavarian Swabia is commonly referred to as the Fuggerstadt, the Fugger family being a prominent business and banking dynasty when Augsburg blossomed during the Renaissance
Fußballplatz - football pitch
Fußballverein - football club
Gastgeber - hosts
Gegner - opponent
Die Gelbe Wand - Dortmund's iconic South Stand, literally 'the Yellow Wall'
Watch: Dortmund's incredible Yellow Wall!
Gesperrt - suspended
Die Grün-Weißen - if it's green and white, it's probably the men from the river Weser: Werder Bremen
Gelsenkirchen - the industrial city in North Rhine-Westphalia from which Schalke hail
Grätsche - sliding tackle
Hackentrick - back-heel
Halbes Hendl - half a roast chicken - typical Bavarian fare served up at the world-famous Oktoberfest beer festival
Halbfinale - semi-final
Halbzeit - half-time
Heim - home
Herbstmeister - the mid-season leaders, the team leading the Bundesliga table after 17 games when the winter break commences
Hinrunde - the first half of the Bundesliga season, Matchdays 1-17
Hinspiel - the first game of a two-legged tie. Usually used when speaking of knock-out competitions but can also describe league encounters
HSV - abbreviation commonly used to refer to Hamburger SV, standing for Hamburger Sport-Verein, or Hamburg Sports Club
Humba - post-match celebration involving both the players and fans. Traditionally, the key player in a victory will cajole the crowd with a megaphone, while the rest of the team join hands and wave in time with the supporters.
Innenverteidiger - centre-back
Joker - a substitute who comes on and scores
Kader - squad
Karnevalsverein - Mainz, a club whose city springs to life during the annual carnival (locally referred to as Fassnacht)
Karte - card or match ticket
Kiezkicker - a nickname for St. Pauli, derived from the St. Pauli neighbourhood of Hamburg in which the club is based
Kraichgauer - a nickname for Hoffenheim, derived from the Kraichgau region where the club is based
Der Klassiker - German football's 'classic' between Bayern and Dortmund.
Die Kleeblätter - the Clover Leaves: the luckiest of charms and Greuther Fürth's logo of choice
Knipser - goal-getter
Kohlenpott - literally 'coal pot' - the industrial Ruhr region, famous for mining, Dortmund and Schalke being its most-known representatives
Köln – German for Cologne, where the Bily Goats reside. The English name for the city actually derives from its French name.
Die Königsblauen - Schalke, aptly named because of their royal blue shirts
Kopfball - header
Die Knappen - the Miners: a less-commonly used nickname for Schalke, a fans' club with its roots in the industrial Ruhr district
Die Knappenschmiede - the name given to Schalke's famed youth academy. The word Schmied means 'forge', with the name itself a pun on Schalke's mining traditions
Latte - crossbar
Länderspiel - international match
Leo - what players say to one another on the pitch if they want a team-mate to let the ball run
Linienrichter - linesman
Die Löwen - 1860 Munich and Eintracht Braunschweig are nicknamed 'The Lions'.
lupenreiner Hattrick - three goals scored by one player in the same half; often abbreviated to 'Hattrick' and not to be confused with the standard English definition of the term
Lupfer - lob
Manndeckung - man-marking
Mannschaft - team
Mauer - wall
Meisterschale - the Bundesliga shield, lifted by the team which finishes top of the standings after 34 Matchdays
'Mia san mia' - Bayern's club motto as said in local dialect, meaning 'we are who we are'
Mittelkreis - centre circle
Mittellinie - halfway line
München – German for Munich, the home of the Bundesliga’s record champions, Bayern
Nachspielzeit - additional/stoppage/extra time
Die Nationalmannschaft - the German national football team
Die Nationalelf - the national team, literally "the National Eleven"
Neuzugang - new signing
Niederlage - defeat
Die Nullfünfer - the 05ers or Mainz, founded in 1905
Nord-Süd Duell - literally translated as the north-south duel, this phrase is used as a label for the fixture Bayern vs. Hamburg, traditionally one of German football's biggest matches.
Nordderby - the term used for the derby played between northern giants and rivals Bremen and Hamburg.
Ordner - steward
Parade - save
Platzverweis - sending-off
Pokal - cup (DFB Pokal - German Cup)
Pott - pot; coll. both for cup and, in abbreviated form (=Ruhrpott) for the Ruhr district
Querpass - square ball
Rasenballsport – Literally “lawn-ball sport”, which Leipzig’s prefix “RB” stands for
Raumdeckung - zonal marking
Raumdeuter - A term used by Thomas Müller to describe his unique style of play, which translates as 'space invader'.
Watch: Müller - the best player in the world without the ball?
Regionalliga - the fourth tier of German football, split into 'Bavaria', 'North', 'South West', 'West' and 'North East'
Der Rekordmeister - record champions (Bayern)
Remis - draw
Rote Laterne - cellar-dwellers, or those in the bottom-half of the table
Die Roten - generally decked out in a ruby hue... Die Roten or the Reds
Die Roten Büllen – the Red Bulls. Leipzig’s nickname
Revierderby - the name typically given to the derby between regional neighbours Schalke and Dortmund.
Die Rothosen - Hamburg, often referred to as the Red Shorts
Rückrunde - the second half of the Bundesliga season, Matchdays 18-34
Rückspiel - the second game of a two-legged tie. Usually used when speaking of knock-out competitons but can also describe league encounters
Rückstand - deficit
Sauerbraten - German pot roast - most often beef, but sometimes venison, lamb, mutton, pork or even horse
SC – The prefix for Freiburg which stands for “Sportclub” (literally: sport club)
Schadenfreude - German word meaning pleasure derived from the misfortune of others
Die Schanzer - Nickname for Ingolstadt. The nickname itself is rooted in the city’s history. When Ingolstadt became a fort in 1806 it earned the moniker die Schanz, meaning “entrenched” and deriving from the German word verschanzen, "to fortify". This also explains why some people in Ingolstadt still refer to natives as Schanzer.
Schiedsrichter - referee
Schlenzer - rasping long-range shot
Schlusspfiff - final whistle
Die Schwaben - hailing from Swabia in the south west of Germany, Stuttgart tend to be called the Swabians
Die Schwarz-Gelben - named after their striking black and yellow colours, it's Borussia Dortmund
Scorer - not to be confused with "goalscorer", this term refers to the combined tally of goals and assists
Sechser - a player who plays the "No. 6" position in midfield, a defensive role in front of the back four
Sieg - victory
Sonntagsschuss - a lovely strike
Spielfeld - pitch
Spielplan - fixture list/schedule
Spitzeln - to toe-poke
SpVgg – The prefix for Greuther Fürth which stands for “Spielvereinigung” (literally: game association)
Stadtrivale - literally translated as 'city rivals' but can also refer to two rival clubs in neighbouring cities, such as Dortmund and Schalke
Stammplatz - regular place in the starting line-up
Standardsituation - dead-ball situation
Stehplätze - terraced
Strafraum - penalty area
SV – The prefix for Werder Bremen which stands for “Sport-Verein” (literally: sport club)
Tabellenführer - league leaders
Teamgeist - team spirit
Tor - goal
Torhüter - goalkeeper
Torjäger - goal-getter
Torjägerkanone - the cannon-shaped prize awarded to the Bundesliga's top scorer at the end of a season
Watch: The Torjägerkanone race has never been boring!
Torschützenkönig - Leading scorer at the end of a season
Torwart - goalkeeper
Traditionsverein - a club rich in history and tradition and a long-time participant and/or champion in the Bundesliga, such as Nürnberg, Gladbach, and Hamburg
Treffer - goal
Tribüne - stand
Trikot - shirt
TSG – The prefix for Hoffenheim which stands for “Turn- und Sportgemeinschaft” (literally: gymnastics and sport community)
Turnier - tournament
Tunneln - to nutmeg
Übersteiger - stepover
Umkleidekabine - dressing rooms, changing rooms
Unentschieden - draw
Ungedeckt - unmarked, free
Verlängerung - extra-time
Verteidiger - defender
Verwarnung - caution
VfB – The prefix for Stuttgart which stands for “Verein für Bewegungsspiele” (literally: club for movement games)
VfL – The prefix for Wolfsburg which stands for “Verein für Leibesübungen” (literally: club for physical exercise)
Vizemeister - runners-up
Vorstopper - centre-back, centre-half
Weitschuss - long-distance shot
Die Werkself - Bayer Leverkusen or the Factory Workers: the factory being Bayer AG, the pharmaceutical company where it all began for the north-west club
Wiesn - Bavarian for Oktoberfest. Wiesn is German dialect for 'meadow', namely the Theresienwiese or 'Therese's Meadow' upon which the world's largest beer festival is held.
Winterpause - the Bundesliga's mid-season winter break, normally lasting from late December to early February.
Die Wölfe - untangle Wolfsburg, and you get the Wolves
Wunderkind - wonderkid
Zehner - a player who plays in the "No. 10" position, an attacking midfielder deployed behind the striker(s)
Zuschauer - spectators
Zu Hause - at home
Zweikampf - tackle/man-on-man tussle
Zweite Liga - informal for Bundesliga 2, Germany's second division