The 21-year-old has suffered a recurrence of a troublesome thigh problem, which restricted him to just six Bundesliga appearances during the second half of the 2016/17 season.
Hannover's Waldemar Anton, having been cut from Stefan Kuntz's final squad a week ago, has been called up in his stead.
Watch: Jonathan Tah scored his only goal of the season on Matchday 18
Germany's U-21s, predominantly made up of Bundesliga representatives, begin their EURO campaign against the Czech Republic in the Polish city of Tychy on 18 June. Demmark and Italy complete Group C.