The Copa America champions were beaten 3-0 by Brazil in their final CONMEBOL qualifier on Tuesday, and with other results going against them, slipped out of the qualifying places, ending in a disappointing sixth place and prompting Vidal's retirement U-turn.
"A warrior can cry, feel fear and disappointment but they never give up and never back down," the 30-year-old, who missed the Brazil game through suspension, wrote in a Twitter post on Wednesday.
Un guerrero puede llorar, sentir temor y hasta decepcionarse, pero jamás se rinde ni abandona hasta la muerte!!!!💪🏼💪🏼💪🏼👊🏼👊🏼🇨🇱 pic.twitter.com/cpJKKwxHMj— Arturo Vidal (@kingarturo23) 11 October 2017
"I'm very sad, like the majority of Chileans," he continued. "Our dream didn't come true. We all made mistakes. Now we have to learn from them and try not to repeat them. It's sad not to have achieved our objective after putting in so much effort. We left behind our families, travelled thousands upon thousands of kilometres - sometimes even carrying injuries - to play in the hardest qualifying campaign in the world.
"And for the first time in ten years, we've been left empty-handed. It's tough but this isn't the end. It's not the end of this group of players, nor of this team and it's certainly not the end of our dreams. There's still a lot to fight for, a lot to give and plenty of happy moments still to come.
"It's a difficult time but now is when you have to show your true colours. Chile is a team of warriors and I'm proud to be a part of it. I won't abandon them. I'll be available for my team - our team - whenever I'm called on.
"Every defeat provides a chance to make amends," Vidal concluded. "It may take a while but that day will come sooner or later. That's why I'm certain that together we'll come back stronger than ever. Never count us out - we're Chilean warriors. Heads up Chile, see you in the next battle!"
Watch: Vidal's September Goal of the Month contender
In September, Vidal had stated he would step down from the national team after next year's global showdown, saying: "I've been thinking about it for some time, I want to be with my family. These ten years have been hard and the time has come to rest."
He returned to Munich from South America early during the international break at the request of new Bayern coach Jupp Heynckes, who is preparing for his first game in charge at home to Freiburg on Bundesliga Matchday 8 this Saturday.