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Bundesliga Bundesliga 2

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Questions about the LeagueQuestions
All essential information on the two top leagues in Germany can be found here.
Note: the data is currently updated annually on June 30th.


The League Association and the DFL Deutsche Fußball Liga GmbH

  • The League Association became an orderly member of the German Football Association (DFB) in 2001
  • All 36 clubs and joint-stock companies are members of the League Association
  • The DFB has overall responsibility for referees, the coaching system and disciplinary procedures


The League Association has transferred responsibility for its business operations to the DFL Deutsche Fußball Liga GmbH. The League Association members amended the statute at its annual general meeting in August 2007 to incorporate the four executive directors of the DFL Deutsche Fußball Liga GmbH into the Association's eleven-man board of directors. In addition, the board of directors is no longer identical to the six-man supervisory board, with the exception of the President and Vice-President
1. Competition
What happens if two teams are level on points and goals at the end of the season?

If teams are level on points in the Bundesliga or the 2. Bundesliga, their final position is determined in accordance with the criteria listed sequentially below:

- goal difference

- number of goals scored

- aggregate result from head-to-head games between the sides

- away goals scored in the head-to-head games.

- number of all away goals

- if even the number of all away goals scored is equal, there will be a play-off at a neutral venue

How many EU- and non-EU foreigners are allowed to play in the Bundesliga and the 2. Bundesliga?

The limitation on the number of non-German nationals in a team was lifted for the start of the 2006-2007 season, as stipulated by the League Association and the DFB (German Football Association) at the December 21, 2005 general meeting. In its place, UEFA's local player regulation was introduced.

This required each club to have at least four players under contract for the start of the 2006-2007 season who had come up through the youth system of a German club. That figure rose to six for the 2007-2008 season and to eight for the start of the 2008-2009 campaign. At least half of these players must have been eligible to play for the club concerned between the ages of 15 and 21.

How many foreigners play in the Bundesliga and 2. Bundesliga?

In all there are 977 players under professional contract at the 36 Bundesliga and 2. Bundesliga clubs: 503 in the Bundesliga and 474 in the 2. Bundesliga.

47 percent of the professional players in the Bundesliga are foreigners (234 players).

171 non-German nationals are active in the 2. Bundesliga, 36 percent of the total (figures as of February 18th 2008).


How are the matchdays for Bundesliga and 2. Bundesliga fixed?

Scheduling the fixtures is a complex process, requiring the careful factoring-in of a variety of interests and guidelines.

Before the start of the season, FIFA fill in the first spaces in the calendar with the international fixtures. UEFA then add the schedule for competitions such as the Champions League and Europa League. Only then can the DFL and DFB (for the German FA Cup) fill in the national benchmark data.

Television contracts provide a further framework for the respective matchday structures (e.g. the 2. Bundesliga usually has three matches on Friday, five on Sunday and one on Monday).

June 15th is incidentally the cut-off date for ruling on whether all clubs in the top two leagues have met the criteria required for the issuing of a professional license for the following season.

The fixtures are then passed on to the Zentrale Informationsstelle für Sicherheit (ZIS), which checks for any possible security issues arising from factors such as "double-headers" - where two clubs in close proximity to each other (e.g. Borussia Dortmund and FC Schalke 04) are both scheduled to play a home match at the same time.

Other factors to be taken into account include special stadium events (athletics meets, concerts etc.), varying holidays in the federal states and parallel events such as church congresses or exhibitions. As well, of course, as logistical issues such as minimizing long trips for away fans for Sunday matches.

How do the fair play rankings work?

The fair play table can provide a backdoor into Europe for the fairest team in the Bundesliga. During all Bundesliga matches, DFB referee supervisors register not only the sportsmanlike behaviour of the teams, but also the level of respect for the opposition, the behaviour of each team's officials and of the crowd. There is a maximum number of points for each game, which is reduced by yellow and red cards.

Thus, even if the season has not gone according to plan, the winners of the national fair play table can dream about a European campaign. That dream can become reality if the national association proves to be among the fairest in UEFA competitions.

Three places in the first preliminary round of the new UEFA Europa League will be reserved for teams qualifying by way of the Respect Fair Play rankings.

Official UEFA delegates carry out the Fair Play assessments, based on criteria such as positive play, respect for the opponents and referee, crowd behaviour and the conduct of club officials, as well as the number of bookings and red cards awarded. All competitive club and national team matches falling under UEFA's jurisdiction are assessed.

The three starting slots will be automatically awarded to the three best-placed national associations in the Fair Play ranking. There will no longer be a draw to determine which two associations may enter an additional team on top of the outright winners.

The three qualifying associations will be entitled to enter the club which heads the domestic fair play rankings in the top division. Should that club already have qualified for a UEFA competition, the second-placed team in the ranking can be entered and so on. In theory, even a team relegated from the top flight could qualify for the UEFA Europa League on the basis of its exemplary conduct in the domestic championship, subject of course to the club holding the mandatory UEFA club licence.

What are the clubs' addresses?

Click here for all addresses of the clubs and capital companies.
2. Finance
How many fans visited the games last season?

The average attendance in the 2011/12 Bundesliga season was 44,293 spectators per match. 18,8 million tickets were sold in total (Bundesliga and Bundesliga 2).
3. Law
What are the criteria for the licence?

All clubs of the Bundesliga and 2. Bundesliga have to meet the criteria in the Lizenzierungsordnung (LO) and its respective appendixes. These are sporting, legal, administrative, infrastructural, and financial (economical efficiency) criteria as well as criteria concerning security and media. All assumptions are of equal importance. The appropriate documents have to be handed in until March 15 each year by the candidates from the professional leagues. In addition, the assumptions for organising matches have to be proved until June 30.

If a club of the Bundesliga or 2. Bundesliga fails to get the licence for the new season, that club will be relegated to the regional league of its regional association. The club will therefore be seen as bottom of the table of the 2. Bundesliga in the previous season. The number of originally relegated clubs will be reduced accordingly.

If the licence is withdrawn from a club during the course of a season, that club will be relegated at the end of the season. All matches that club has already played or is due to play will be counted as victories for the opposition.
4. Marketing
What do the stars on some clubs shirts mean?

Since the Bundesliga season 2004/2005 the clubs are officially allowed to wear title symbols over their club crest. The star is a symbol for the league titles won since 1963. The regulation is as follows:

At least 3 league titles won = 1 star
At least 5 league titles won = 2 stars
At least 10 league titles won = 3 stars
At least 20 league titles won = 4 stars